IPRI 2016: Group Results

IV.1     IPRI 2016 Groups Results

 

Countries were grouped following different criteria: geographical regions, income level, degree of development and participation in economic and regional integration agreements. For each group the IPRI score and its components were calculated. Also former years’ classifications were retained for comparison purposes (see Table 5).

We can see that all the regions improved their scores compared to those of 2015. North America and Western Europe keep the top positions with scores of 7.88 and 7.36 respectively. The highest improvement was shown by the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan group, rising 0.341 (7%) to 5.32 in its IPRI score (See Figure 11).

Following a geographical classification as defined by the World Bank (see Figure 12), Oceania heads the groups with an IPRI score of 8.098, followed by North America (6.846). All the regions but Central America and the Caribbean improved their scores, which remained the same. Africa was the group that increased the most its IPRI, from 4.39 to 4.63 (6%).

The Regional and Development classification of the International Monetary Fund shows that the top IPRI-2016 scores (Figure 13) are held by Advanced Economies (7.166) followed by the Middle East, North Africa & Pakistan (5.188), which was the group with the highest IPRI score improvement (7%). The Emerging and Developing Europe stepped back to 4.902 (-0.105, equivalents to 2%) followed closely by Emerging and Developing Asia (4.748), Latin America and the Caribbean (4.728) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (4.269). At the bottom is Sub-Saharan Africa (4.663), showing an important improvement (0.206, equivalent to 5%).

This year the criteria of the World Bank does not include the traditional sub-classification for High Income, belonging or not to the OECD, though we maintained these classifications for comparison purposes. The income classification gathers countries directly according to the results of the IPRI-2016, the bottom group being Low income (4.275), then Lower Middle Income (4.393), Upper Middle Income (4.981), High Income (6.704).  It is important to highlight that High income OECD countries decreased their score by 16% (from 7.09 to 5.944) while High Income non-OECD increased their scores by 14% (from 6.15 to 7.027). All of the rest of the groups showed better scores (see Figure 14).

Considering economic integration agreements, we found that the Pacific agreement between Australia and New Zealand keeps its top score of the groups with an IPRI-2016 score of 8.098, followed by the European Free Trade Association (7.787), the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement[2] (6.9), the North American Free Trade Agreement (6.84), the European Union (6.641) and the Gulf Cooperation Council (6.316). Then we find Pacific Alliance (5.406), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (5.357), the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (5.034), Southern African Development Community (4.9), Central American Common Market (4.784), Central American Parliament (4.672), the Andean Community (4.648) and the Economic Community of West African States (4.587) (See Figure 15).

It should be noted that some groups are in different classifications and they report different score values. That is the case of Commonwealth of Independent States or Latin America and the Caribbean. This is because in some of the classifications they include or exclude a particular country.

Table 5. IPRI 2016. Groups Score

 

Group

IPRI

LP

PPR

IPR

IPRI Groups

A

4.628

4.016

5.267

4.602

AO

5.697

5.396

6.266

5.428

CEECA

5.136

4.955

5.549

4.903

LAC

4.728

4.126

5.348

4.709

MENA

5.324

5.011

6.224

4.737

NA

7.876

7.810

7.391

8.425

WE

7.362

7.613

6.789

7.683

Geographical Regions

European Union

6.641

6.752

6.288

6.884

Rest Of Europe

5.112

5.065

5.822

4.448

Africa

4.630

4.017

5.297

4.578

North America

6.846

6.435

6.625

7.479

Central America & Caribe

4.747

4.184

5.281

4.777

South America

4.704

4.114

5.432

4.568

Asia

5.519

5.119

6.297

5.141

Oceania

8.098

8.672

7.563

8.060

Region & Development Classification

Advanced economies

7.166

7.345

6.767

7.386

Commonwealth of Ind.  States

4.269

3.822

5.665

3.320

Emerging and Developing Asia

4.748

4.231

5.637

4.378

Emerging and Developing Europe

4.902

4.803

5.357

4.546

Latin America and the Caribbean

4.728

4.126

5.348

4.709

Middle East North Africa &Pakistan

5.188

4.665

6.140

4.760

Sub-Saharan Africa

4.663

4.054

5.308

4.627

Income Classification

High income

6.704

6.781

6.549

6.781

Upper-middle income

4.981

4.443

5.844

4.657

Lower-middle income

4.393

3.828

5.337

4.013

Low income

4.275

3.606

4.760

4.459

Income Classification (w/OECD & nonOECD)

High income: OECD

7.027

7.124

6.593

7.366

High income: nonOECD

5.944

5.857

6.374

5.599

Upper-middle income

4.981

4.483

5.858

4.602

Lower-middle income

4.393

3.828

5.337

4.013

Low income

4.275

3.606

4.760

4.459

Regional& Economic Integration Agreements

EU

6.641

6.752

6.288

6.884

SADC

4.900

4.537

5.510

4.653

ECOWAS

4.587

3.884

5.167

4.710

ASEAN

5.357

4.919

6.266

4.886

PARLACEN

4.672

3.775

5.786

4.454

GCC

6.316

6.083

7.234

5.631

AP

5.406

4.776

6.041

5.401

MERCOSUR

4.431

4.065

4.960

4.267

SAARC

4.227

3.755

4.966

3.961

CEMAC

4.149

3.203

4.780

4.464

MCCA

4.784

4.170

5.650

4.532

CIS

4.214

3.557

5.619

3.465

ARAB M UNION

4.493

3.819

5.364

4.296

CARICOM

4.476

4.195

4.405

4.827

CAN

4.648

3.457

5.717

4.771

EFTA

7.874

8.508

7.425

7.688

IGAD

4.484

3.645

5.326

4.481

NAFTA

6.846

6.435

6.625

7.479

PACIFIC

8.098

8.672

7.563

8.060

CEEAC

3.972

3.028

4.705

4.183

TPP

6.900

6.754

6.949

6.996

OPEC

5.034

4.425

6.008

4.670

 

Figure 11. IPRI 2016 and Components. Groups Score

[View Graphic]

 

Figure 12. IPRI 2016 and Components. Regional Groups Score

[View Graphic]

Figure 13. IPRI 2016 and Components. Development Groups Score

[View Graphic]

 

Figure 14. IPRI 2016 and Components. Income Groups Score

[View Graphic]

Figure 15. IPRI 2016 and Components.

Economic & Regional Integration Agreement Groups Score

[View Graphic]

 

 

 

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1 FINLAND 8.4
2 NEW ZEALAND 8.3
3 LUXEMBOURG 8.3
4 NORWAY 8.3
5 SWITZERLAND 8.2
6 SINGAPORE 8.1
7 SWEDEN 8.1
8 JAPAN 8.1
9 NETHERLANDS 8.0
10 CANADA 8.0
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