IPRI 2016: Population and Gender

V.        IPRI-Population


As in the last edition, we computed a population incidence to the index. In this regard we note that although the IPRI-2016 average score is 5.45, when it is weighted by population it is reduced to 5.28. However, it is higher than in 2015 (5.176) by 2%.

Our sample of 128 countries has a population of 6.83 billion (thousand million) people and it showed that 63% of the world population lives in 44 countries with an IPRI between [4.5-5.4], while 19% of the population enjoys higher levels of property rights protection in the other 53 countries [5.5-7.8]. Even though this is an improvement from the previous year, there is still much room for upgrading the property rights systems in highly populated countries.

Table 6.  IPRI 2016 and Population


IPRI 2016 (Score Range)

Number of Countries

Population (thousands)

Population (%)

IPRI Incidence in Total Score (%)

IPRI-Population Incidence in total Score (%)

2,5 a 3,4






3,5 a 4,4






4,5 a 5,4






5,5 a 6,4






6,5 a 7,4






7,5 a 8,4














Taking into account a demographic perspective is very important for an index such as the IPRI, which aims to assess the level of property rights that people have, regardless of whether measurements are taken by countries. With this approach, the IPRI becomes an even more powerful tool for policy makers.

Figure 16 shows a combination of elements while analysing changes in IPRI scores: country, population and belonging to particular group. It is positive news to see that most of the countries have improved their scores. However, there would be a huge impact if those densely populated countries are able to foster their property rights system.



Figure 16. IPRI 2016. Country score changes (population and groups)

[View Graphic]

VI.       IPRI and Gender


Gender refers to the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationships between women and men, which are socially constructed and learned through the socialization processes. Gender Equality refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys; this means that the interests, needs and priorities of both female and male are taken into consideration, recognizing the diversity of these different groups. This is an issue of human rights and social justice, so it is a goal in itself. Simultaneously, it has been demonstrated its relevance fostering development, being especially evident in some areas like health, education, agriculture and equitable access to credit for reducing poverty. This means that gender equality plays a crucial role for less developed and developing countries.

We used the Social Institutions and Gender Index, SIGI (by OECD), to calculate the Gender component for the IPRI, giving mayor relevance to those items more closely related to property rights and its impact on economic development.[3]

To account for gender equality, this chapter extends the standard IPRI measure to include a measure of gender equality (GE) concerning property rights. The IPRI formula was modified to incorporate gender equality as following:




A weight of 0.2 for the gender equality measure is arbitrary. We varied the weight to 0.5 or according to the female/male population in each country, but scores were highly correlated. We decided to keep the weight of 0.2 for comparison purposes with previous data series.

VI.1     Data & Methodology


The construction of the GE measure is based on the following five indicators (Source: OECD Gender, Institutions, and Development Database 2014 (GID-DB) details in Appendix III):

1.     Women’s Access to Land: Measures whether women and men have equal and secure access to land use, control and ownership.

2.     Women’s Access to Credit: Measures whether women and men have equal access to financial services

3.     Women’s Access to Property Other than Land: Measures whether women and men have equal and secure access to non-land asset use, control and ownership

4.     Inheritance Practices combines two elements:

a.      Inheritance Practice to Daughters: Measures whether daughters and sons have equal inheritance rights

b.     Inheritance Practice to Widows: Measures whether widows and widowers have equal inheritance rights

5.     Women’s Social Rights, covers broader aspects of women’s equality and it is a composite of four other items crucial to equal standing in society:

a.      Parental authority

                                        i.     In marriage: Measures whether women and men have the same right to be the legal guardian of a child during marriage

                                      ii.     After divorce: Measures whether women and men have the same right to be the legal guardian of and have custody rights over a child after divorce

b.     Female genital mutilation: Measures the prevalence of female genital mutilation

c.      Access to public space: Measures whether women face restrictions on their freedom of movement and access to public space

d.     Son preference in education: Percentage of people agreeing that university is more important for boys than for girls.

The original data has three levels: 0 (Best), 0.5 (Average) and 1 (Worst). All data series were rescaled to IPRI scale (0-10). The final GE score is an index based on the average of the five equally weighted variables. Those variable with more than one item where calculated also as equally weighted.

A minimum score (0) means complete discrimination against women, while maximum score (10) is given to countries with gender equality. Consequently, the IPRI-GE scale is (0-12).

As the GE data source is discrete, equal outcomes are likely to be found. That will be reduced in the IPRI-GE due to the variability of the IPRI scores.



VI.2. IPRI-GE and GE. Country Results


The IPRI-GE shows results for 124 from 128 countries included in the IPRI-2016, as there was no information available for Guyana, Malta, Montenegro and Taiwan. On average, the 124 countries show a GE of 7.466 and an IPRI-GE of 6.933. This is an improvement from 2015 which yielded a GE of 7.39 and an IPRI-GE of 6.76. The scores and ranking of IPRI-GE 2015 and GE-2015 can be seen in Figures 17a and 17b. 

There are 14 countries with a maximum score of GE=10: Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Rep., Denmark, Dominican Rep. Iceland Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Panama, Portugal and Slovakia, and there are 30 other countries in the range of 9-10. The bottom scores of GE are held by Nigeria (3.12), Zambia (3.25), Egypt (3.365), United Arab Emirates (3.666), Oman (3.666), Saudi Arabia (3.7), Chad (3.706), Iran (3.725) Mauritania (3.853), Qatar (3.86) and Bangladesh (3.94).

Finland tops the IPRI-GE (10.371), followed by New Zealand (10.261), Luxemburg (10.256), Norway (10.248), Sweden (10.001), Japan (10.082), Switzerland (10.051), Netherlands (10.022), Canada (10.009)). All of them very close in their score values, and over 10. In the score range 9-10 we find Denmark, Australia, USA, Germany, Singapore, Austria, Ireland, Belgium, UK, Hong Kong, France and Iceland.

On the other extreme of the IPRI-GE we find Bangladesh (3.565), Myanmar (3.693), Nigeria (4.186), Haiti (4.409), Chad (4.48) Mauritania (4.501), Burundi (4.64), Pakistan (4.683) and Lebanon (4.7) and the Bolivarian Rep. of Venezuela (4.715). The lattermost not because of its gender component (which is high: 9.93) but because of its low IPRI score (2.7). The same applies for Haiti (GE=7.83, IPRI=2.8)

Analyzing the IPRI-GE by groups of countries we found very interesting results (see Figure 18):

•        By Region: the three top groups are Oceania, North America, and Europe Union while at the bottom we find Africa and MENA countries. In these two groups the GE component is particularly low, pushing down the IPRI-GE score; just the opposite what happens to Latin America & the Caribbean and part of Europe, high GE scores pull up the IPRI-GE.

•        By Regional and Development criteria: The top group is Advanced Economies (9.11) followed by Emerging and Developing Europe (6.75) and Latin America and the Caribbean (6.41). Again these two last groups show much better behavior in their GE scores (9.04 and 8.31 respectively) than in the IPRI. The bottom groups are Sub-Saharan Africa (5.77) Commonwealth of Independent States (5.95) and Emerging and Developing Asia (5.92). The Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan show the lowest GE score (4.43) followed by the Sub-Saharan Africa (5.52).

•        By Income classification: the GE and the IPRI-GE, follow the same pattern as the IPRI. On top we find High Income OECD countries (GE=9.63 IPRI-GE=8.95), followed High Income non-OECD (GE=7.36 IPRI-GE=7.58), Upper Middle Income (GE=6.45 IPRI-GE=7.25), Low Middle Income (GE=5.58 IPRI-GE=5.93) and Low Income countries (GE=5.44 IPRI-GE=5.82).

•        By Economic and Regional Integration Agreements: As with last year, the top five groups are Pacific (10.09), European Free Trade Association (9.84), NAFTA (8.64), European Union (8.60), TPP (8.57), GCC (7.25) and AP (7.06). However the Gulf Cooperation Council shows a low GE score (4.66) just following the bottom of the list which is held by CEMAC (4.45) Arab M. Union (4.49). The bottom three groups for the IPRI-GE are the Economic Community of Central African States (4.94) Central African Economic and Monetary Community (5.04), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (5.29), Arab Monetary Union (5.39) and Intergovernmental Authority on Development (5.58).  It should be highlighted that all the Latin American agreements (PARLACEN, CAN, CARICOM, MCCA, MERCOSUR) and the Commonwealth of Independent States show medium IPRI-GE scores, while showing high levels in GE values.



Fig. 17a. IPRI-GE 2016. Scores & Rankings

Fig. 17b. GE-2016 Scores & Rankings




Figure18. GE and IPRI-GE. Groups of countries










Table 7 shows the IPRI-GE 2016 rankings by quintile for the 124 countries in our sample. As in the IPRI, the number of countries belonging to each quintile increases from the top 20% to the bottom 20% (1st quintile 17 countries, 2nd quintile 20 countries, 3rd quintile 25 countries, 4rd quintile 28 countries and 5th quintile 34 countries).  Hence, the forth and the fifth quintiles include 50% of the countries (62 countries) in the sample.

Table 7. IPRI-GE Ranking by quintiles






Top Ranked Countries

These are the countries where property rights are most secure. For a complete list, click here.

Ranks Country Rating
4 NORWAY 8.3
7 SWEDEN 8.1
8 JAPAN 8.1
10 CANADA 8.0

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