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This report presents the seventh edition of the International Property Rights Index (IPRI).
This study is conducted annually, and compares the protection of property rights – physical and intellectual – across countries. Following the previous year’s editions, a goal of the IPRI is to investigate the effects of a country’s legal and political environment as well as the recognition and enforcement of physical and intellectual property rights on the economic development of a country. The 2013 edition of the IPRI compares 131 countries using three core components.
Due to expansions in the data available from our sources, this year the index was able to add the countries of Gabon, Haiti, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The reader is reminded that some fluctuations in relative rankings could reflect changes in the sample of countries rather than substantive variation within a country’s property rights regime. In order to better asses these changes in countries’ performances, the author presents new tables demonstrating variation in the absolute IPRI scores as well as the component scores.
Since the first edition of the IPRI, the compilers of the index have tried to use the best data available while also maintaining the consistency and integrity of the index. By using the same weighing scheme as the previous year’s index, the 2013 edition is able to remain congruous allowing for comparability of countries over time.
In order to better compare IPRI scores across time, country profiles have been included to demonstrate the progressions and regressions in a country’s property rights regime.
Like the 2011 and 2012 IPRI, the gender equality component of the 2013 IPRI focuses exclusively on non-OECD countries.
This is because the author believes it is important to understand how gender can impact land rights which in turn effects economic development.
The 2013 IPRI continues to build on previous years’ indices and provide more comprehensive measures on property rights. While some aspects of the data collection and interpretation have continued to improve over the years, there are still a number of limitations and challenges present. We are confident that future editions of the report will be able to address and overcome these issues.
Case Study on Tunisia-
Dr. Ana Lucia Camaiora, Legal Director of the Institute for Liberty and Democracy (ILD), Lima, Peru.
Case Study on Venezuela-
Prof. Luis Alfonso Herrera and Prof. Felipe Benitez, Prof. Luis Alfonso Herrera and Prof. Felipe Benitez, Research Fellows at Centro de Divulgación del Conocimiento Económico (CEDICE), Caracas, Venezuela.
Case Study on China-
Prof. Xingyuan Feng, Vice Director of Unirule Institute of Economics and Professor of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China. Prof. Christer Ljungwall, Associate Professor at the Department of International Economics and Management, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark. Prof. Yeliang Xia, Professor of School of Economics of Peking University, Beijing, China.
Case Study on Thailand-
Prof. Kriengsak Chareonwongsak, Senior Fellow at Harvard University, Cambridge (MA), USA.
The International Property Rights Index (IPRI) is a product of the efforts of the Washington, DC-based Property Rights Alliance (PRA). The PRA is dedicated to the protection of property rights (physical and intellectual) in the U.S. and around the world. The PRA is an affiliate of the taxpayer advocacy organization, Americans for Tax Reform (ATR).
Despite the growing accessibility of international data and research regarding property rights, existing indices and studies traditionally focus on either the physical or intellectual aspects of property rights. Additionally, most global indices are dedicated to broader topic areas instead of a focused debate on property rights. However, noted exceptions include the Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom and the Fraser Institute Economic Freedom of the World, which do address property rights, although in the context of assembling a larger snapshot of each country. To deal with this lack of a more broadly defined property rights assessment, in 2006 the PRA promoted the Hernando de Soto Fellowship. The fellowship provides a chance to develop and analyze global data in property rights and conceptually discuss them within the annual publication International Property Rights Index, presented here in its seventh edition.
Francesco Di Lorenzo is a Ph.D. candidate in Management Science at ESADE Business School (Universitat Ramon Llull) and a visiting research scholar at McDonough School of Business (Georgetown University).
His main research interests are in the Strategic Management and Economics and Management of Innovation areas. More specifically, they include: mobility of inventors, individual innovative performance, innovation routines, organizational learning, alliances, and evolutionary and behavioral theories of the firm. He was a visiting researcher at Bocconi University (Italy). He is a member of the Academy of Management (AOM), Strategic Management Society (SMS) and DRUID Society. His work has been presented at leading international conferences (including AOM, SMS) and currently under review in top academic journals.
His main teaching areas are: strategic management, international strategy and corporate strategy. He is a lecturer at ESADE Business School for the Master of Science in International Management and Undergraduate programs (both in English and Spanish). He is also a teaching assistant for the Executive MBA at McDonough School of Business.
Before starting the Ph.D. studies in ESADE, Francesco received a B.A. in Business and Economics and a MSc. in Business and Administration at Bocconi University. He worked for the United Nations as a junior analyst for UNICEF in the Programme Funding Office (PFO) in New York Headquarter, as a consultant for McKinsey&Co. and Accenture for the Management Consulting and Financial Markets division.
We would like to express our gratitude for Hernando de Soto’s leadership in being at the forefront on discussions about the challenges posed by lack of secure property rights. His vision for creating a world with greater security of property rights continues to inspire our work on the index. We are honored to have the fellowship bear his name and are grateful for his continued support and guidance. We look forward to working with him and the scholars at the Lima-based Institute for Liberty and Democracy (ILD) in the future.
We are particularly thankful for the financial and intellectual support of Grover Norquist and the Americans for Tax Reform Foundation (ATRF). Needless to say, their support for the Hernando de Soto Fellowship program has made it possible for us to publish the International Property Rights Index (IPRI) annually. We are also thankful to the staff at Americans for Tax Reform (ATR) for their assistance throughout the project.
As Property Rights Alliance, we are immensely thankful to all the contributors for the four case studies on Tunisia, Venezuela, China, and Thailand. Special thanks go to the following: Dr. Ana Lucia Camaiora from the Institute for Liberty and Democracy for providing a special study on the lack of property rights in Tunisia as one of the main causes for sparking the Arab Spring; Prof. Luis Alfonso Herrera and Prof. Felipe Benitez from Centro de Divulgación del Conocimiento Económico (CEDICE) for their analysis on deteriorated status of the property rights in Venezuela; Prof. Xingyuan Feng, Prof. Christer Ljungwall, and Prof. Yeliang Xia from the Chinese Academy, Copenhagen Business School, and Peking University respectively- their outstanding research on the protection of property rights in China is illuminating and inspiring; last but not least, a sincere thanks goes out to Prof. Kriengsak Chareonwongsak, Senior Fellow, Harvard University for providing an interesting update about his previous case study published in the 2009 IPRI.
Special thanks are due to Gaurav Tiwari (2011 Hernando de Soto Fellow) for his time in helping us build on last year’s index.
We extend, further, our special appreciation to the PRA’s Associates Christopher Elmiger and Rachelle Korinko for their outstanding research assistance. Their efforts, knowledge, and hard work made it feasible to include the country profiles in the IPRI. A special thanks to PRA’s Associate Heidi Kruger, Ph.D. student at ESADE Business School whose research interests are in the relationship between entrepreneurship and innovative.
We thank Giovanni Bongiovanni for his foreword to this year’s index and we admire his tireless work on defending free-market principles and rule of law, not only in Argentina but also in Latin America, through his Think Tank Fundación Libertad. This year they celebrate their 25th anniversary.
We gratefully appreciate the continued support and commitment of our 74 international partner organizations from more than 50 countries, without them it would be impossible to promote and advocate property rights around the world. We welcome our new partners to this year’s index.
Francesco di Lorenzo, 2012 Hernando de Soto Fellow, Property Rights Alliance
Lorenzo Montanari, Executive Director, Property Rights Alliance